One of our internal sharing sessions last month was led by our Associate Consultant, Annette Fisher who shared her experience of working with a women’s Adivasi social movement to develop a ‘people’s theory of change’ (ToC) in Gujarat, India. While many of us might already be familiar with theories of change, it is interesting to see and learn how this process can be more grounded, participative and reflective.
Danielle, another one of our lead researchers, started the session by explaining more about theories of change in general, the various types of ToCs, and the different ways they can be applied and used. We also discussed how ToCs are usually developed more by ‘higher’ level programme staff rather than from, for example, local staff or directly by people most affected by the issues. It can be challenging to accommodate both programming agendas and the real situation in the field. Which brings us to Annette’s experience.
Annette’s work was done with ANANDI, a women’s social movement based in Gujarat, India which champions the causes of Adivasi tribal women, a group which has been historically marginalised in Gujarat and elsewhere. Using a participatory action research approach, Annette and her research partners in ANANDI, wanted to explore how to increase the utilisation of community-collected data (in this case related to public health services) for influencing state accountability in more strategic and efficient ways. Through the research process working with ANANDI volunteers, Annette saw that there was an opportunity to expand the process into developing a ToC, collaboratively with the ANANDI team. Using a participatory approach, allowed participants to learn together and was empowering in that it gave the local volunteers a better sense about the potential impacts their community-collected data can have.
Following Annette’s sharing we discussed the possibility of being able to create more People’s Theories of Change, what kinds of projects that might be most appropriate for, and how we can potentially interest more donors or programmes to consider exploring this type of ToC development.
Annette also shared some photos of the process, including some of the initial mapping sketches along with how the team engaged during the activities
For more information on the details of the research and ToC development by Annette & ANANDI, please check out the full report.
Every year the entire Empatika Team in Indonesia (our core team plus current and past research associates) gathers for a small party where we share food, stories and games. Other times we’ve done picnics in parks or last year, a potluck at our new office, but with COVID-19 restrictions this year we decided to hold a virtual party. Our Empatika Zoom Party was held during Ramadan (so more things to celebrate!) with more than 20 of us joining in the call, including researchers and team members who live outside of the Jakarta area, such as Bali, West Sulawesi, and West Papua, and even those now living in Barcelona and Sweden.
Before the break-fasting time, we spent a few hours catching up as well as playing games through Zoom like doing pictionary, guessing famous Indonesian TV advertisements, movie clues, and word games. Although we couldn't interact physically and faced some lagging internet connections, we shared a lot of laughs. As there were prizes involved, some of the games also became quite competitive! While it was a fun time and we are lucky to still be able to catch up with so many from our larger team, we hope that things will get better soon and that we can meet each other again, in person.
We have published our second brief synthesizing insights relevant to the ongoing COVID-19 response, this one based on the two immersion studies conducted by our team in Uganda. Like the Indonesia brief, we have highlighted key relevant findings along with the implications for COVID-19 programming and policies in Uganda.
The studies in Uganda were conducted in 2017 and involved training a team of enthusiastic Ugandan researchers who lived with 50 families across 15 different districts in northern, eastern, and central Uganda.
Some of the insights include, for example, that i) daily chores such as collecting water are time consuming and as women tend to also handle day-to-day education and health matters, they may be under increased pressure and stress with potential impacts on husband-wife relationships; ii) most people prefer to receive cash assistance rather than in-kind assistance; and iii) most families prefer to sell directly to middlemen that come to the village/their farms because of the convenience which may limit their options during the current COVID crisis.
As one of our studies in Uganda also focused on old people’s experiences with the Uganda Senior Citizen Grants, we have highlighted insights that are particularly relevant for this group as well.
View the full brief here.
Understanding people’s attitudes and behaviour towards hand washing and healthcare is more important than ever before. Check out our full brief about how insights from ethnographic approaches can help.
The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to hit low income countries – and specifically the poorest people within these countries – the hardest. Governments, UN Agencies and development programmes need to react both quickly and effectively to prevent the worst from happening. Global public health programmes have taught us that the best health policies and programmes are those which are evidence-based. This has already proven imperative during this crisis, as people are being asked to dramatically alter their daily lives in order to keep themselves and those around them safe.
At Empatika we know that, for example, government messaging through WhatsApp groups and on Facebook is not sufficient to promote behaviour change, even for practices as simple as washing hands. There is ample evidence from our immersion research that such messages are often ignored and that people’s understanding of health, hygiene and cleanliness is needed to support change.
Why do some health behaviour change programmes work and others do not? Our immersion-based research provides insights into people’s everyday lives and allows us to consider what people say and what they do, within their own reality. By living with families in over 75 rural and urban locations in Indonesia, we have gathered insights that can be used to address public health challenges. These details are essential to tailoring messages and approaches to address the drivers of key health behaviours, like hand washing, breast feeding, or health seeking practices.
Social distancing and travel restrictions limit the options available to collect up-to-date information on how people are responding to the pandemic. However, Empatika’s extensive experiential insights gathered over more than six years may help inform responsive interventions. This includes a network of families across Indonesia with whom we have lived and can communicate with remotely to assess behaviour change and community responses to the crisis. We hope to be able to share these insights and their implications to support policy makers and programmes to design the most effective interventions and forms of support possible to help communities get through the pandemic.
See our page on COVID-related insights for more information along with key insights and implications relevant to COVID-19 responses and policy in Indonesia.
Last year Empatika partnered with Stats4SD to conduct a mixed methods baseline study commissioned by UNICEF Indonesia to support the start of their programme on supporting girls to thrive in West Papua. This programme will aim to achieve three main outcomes that include: i) building a positive school climate to keep girls in school and to prevent violence in schools; ii) providing a quality learning package for primary and lower secondary students to improve their learning outcome and their healthy behaviours; and iii) providing safe and self-empowering opportunities for adolescents to actively learn, discuss and express their views on key issues affecting their lives.
(click on each image to learn more)
This study explored a wide range of issues including literacy, WASH, in-school participation, life skills, bullying and violence. It is intended to help develop an accurate picture of the current situation in targeted schools, support adaptation of programme interventions, strategies and approaches, and provide a baseline for future programme impact assessment.
The quantitative portion of this mixed methods study used a survey conducted with students and teachers at eight schools (4 SMP and 4 SD) in the Sorong district of West Papua. During the survey an Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) was also conducted with grade 2 and 3 students. Following the survey fieldwork our researchers returned to conduct a RCA immersion in three of the survey locations, staying with some of the students to gain deeper insights and learn more from the students, their families, and the surrounding community. School observations were also conducted both during the survey fieldwork and the immersions in order to help complete the picture around these issues.
One of the unique aspects of the study was that most of the researchers that participated in the quantitative portion also went back for the qualitative immersions. This was the first time for many of our researchers to conduct a survey and we were lucky to have Alex from Stats4SD visit in late July to train our team before the survey fieldwork. Our researchers also introduced different icebreaking games as part of the survey process to help students feel comfortable and relaxed (see photo above). With many of the researchers going back for the immersions, this meant that researchers had already developed some relationships with students and others in the community and were already familiar with some of the context and challenges in that area. This also meant that during analysis of the findings when our study leads had follow-up questions or clarifications with our research team, they had multiple points of reference that they could draw upon. The study leads (including the two Empatika leads along with Alex from Stats4SD) also met for a two-day joint analysis session to lead into the report writing process.
Along with our partnership with Stats4SD on this study, we also received support from Dr. Lucia Retno and her team in designing and analysis of the EGRA test.
You can read the whole report here.
Some of the key findings from the study include:
The Empatika Jakarta office joined our international team members in working from home beginning the week 16 March. Although our research studies and fieldwork are currently on hold, we hope to be able to use this time for internal capacity building, working on our training programs, and catching up on a variety of other tasks. We are also looking for ways that we can be involved in the response to this pandemic, especially in Indonesia.
Empatika started March with a follow-up to our study last year on Multi-Purpose Cash Assistance (MPCA) in Central Sulawesi and North Lombok. This new study in East Lombok will be an integrated mixed methods study with surveys followed-up by immersion research and participatory focus group discussions. There will be baseline and endline phases that aim to track changes from the beginning to end of this cash transfer program.
During the process, we will be exploring how people’s livelihoods have been affected by the 2018 earthquake, how people perceive the assistance, the process and mechanism, how they spend the money, and the impacts that it has on their lives.
Our team conducted the initial survey in early March, working with a quantitative programmer to design the questionnaires. Over eight days, nine researchers from our team visited four different villages receiving the assistance and interviewed more than 500 people.
The remaining parts of the study are currently on hold due to Covid-19, as are the cash disbursements themselves. We hope that it won’t be long before the situation is safe enough to continue the cash disbursements, as this money will no doubt be especially helpful for families in these communities due to the limitations placed on activities and business by the corona outbreak. We also look forward to returning to these communities when it is safe to do so, and will be expanding our own security protocols to ensure safety both for our own researchers along with the study participants.
Following up on emerging topics and issues highlighted during the exploratory research phase last November, in February our team undertook structured research in the same four communities. We combined several participatory approaches and tools, including:
Participatory Focus Group Discussions (pFGDs) with Moms, Fathers, Older Women, Health Service Providers, and Cadres
(click on each image to learn more)
As well as extensive observation relating to data management for Posyandu and Puskesmas
During this phase, we also wanted to explore and better understand how the Posyandu collects, records, and manages the data of the Posyandu participants relating to health and their development.
These deep, detailed, and contextual insights on specific issues will also be used to help plan for the upcoming Human Centered Design (HCD) workshops that will be conducted at the community level in Late March/early April. The HCD process will include brainstorming and prototyping solutions to address challenges identified by community members themselves both from the immersion and structured research phases.
We’re excited that our long history of work in Bangladesh is continuing this year with a new study on Child Labour. As part of preparing for this study, in mid-February two members of our core team trained a new batch of local Bangladeshi researchers in the RCA Level 1 training, which includes three days of classroom training along with a two-night pilot immersion. Our team was assisted by some of the Bangladeshi researchers that we have worked with for previous studies (some of whom we’ve worked with for over five years now!) who we’re lucky to have back joining this study as well. The main study fieldwork will take place from early to mid-March.
Following the 2018 earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi, and two earthquakes in West Nusa Tenggara, some of the international humanitarian partners introduced multi-purpose cash assistance programmes to help people meet their basic needs. Empatika was asked to do qualitative assessment of MPCA programmes in the Central Sulawesi districts of Palu, Donggala, and Sigi along with the West Nusa Tenggara district of North Lombok to inform learning about best practices in MPC assistance and transfers during emergencies from the perspectives of beneficiaries.
The study was conducted using scoping immersions and participatory focus group discussions (pFGDs) in eight communities (two in each district) in an attempt to understand beneficiary perspectives and the local context. Follow-up digital storytelling workshops were conducted in two of the communities (one in Sigi and one in North Lombok) to dig deeper into contextual and personal experiences with the programme. In North Lombok, we conducted two separate DST workshops in order to include some women from a remote area in this community with limited access to services and limited opportunities for having their voices heard.
Our researchers learned about this remote area during the scoping immersion, when some posyandu cadres had shared that there were some areas of the community that faced poor access including for accessing the MPC assistance. Following this, we went to the upper parts of the village to learn more, where we met another posyandu cadre who offered to take us to one of these communities. She explained that this particular area did not receive the MPCA although many women were initially registered. The area is reached by a small walking path which goes up and down a ravine (around a 1.5-hour round trip walk). This greatly helped the researchers in understanding the access challenges that some of the areas of this village face. The researchers also had some brief discussions with some women in the community, where they learned about their disappointment in not receiving the assistance.
This remote area was actually not as affected by the earthquake compared to the areas of the village lower down the mountain because they are still using more traditional wooden homes. However, this area faces serious access challenges and is much poorer overall. When we visited the area again for the DST workshop, the women we spoke with were reluctant to participate at first. Some felt that they didn't have any interesting stories to tell while others were afraid about their ability to write or draw. However, after some encouragement by us to emphasize that simple stories can be just as good, and showing the women some examples of DSTs made by people in other areas of Indonesia, they agreed to give it a shot. It turned that all of the women in the group had trouble reading and writing in the Indonesian language (as most had limited education and they mainly used their local language) so rather than having the women write their down their stories, we helped them develop more detailed storyboards and then let them tell us their stories verbally. Our team developed scripts based on their storyboards to assist with developing cues for what the women were planning to talk about for each of their drawings and photos that would be appearing in their story.
It's always exciting in any DST workshop when all participants successfully finish recording their narration, and this was definitely no exception! Getting to watch the completed videos (we projected onto the bamboo wall of one of their kitchens :-)) with these mothers, now with proud smiles, was a great experience.
Their videos also provided powerful illustrations of their experiences since the earthquake and of some of the struggles they face in their daily lives. Many of the mothers shared about their disappointment in not receiving the MPC assistance; others shared about the confusion and embarrassment when they walked over an hour down the mountain only to find out that their names were not included in the final beneficiary list; others shared about the daily challenges that they face; and many voiced their motivation to continue to work for their children and shared their hopes that better fortune will come.
Below are some screenshots from this DST workshop along with the workshops in other part of the Lombok community and in Sigi, Central Sulawesi.